Government Corporations
Created by Congress to undertake independent commercial activities; government agency that operates as a business corporation; allowed to make money through the sale of services
Departments (4)
1. State2. Defense3. Homeland Security4. Housing and Urban Development
Independent Agencies Outside the Regular Departments (5)
1. CIA2. United States Information Agency3. NASA4. Small Business Administration5. Veterans Administration6. Environmental Protection Agency 7. National Security Agency
Entitlement Programs (4)
1. Unemployment insurance2. Disaster Payments3. Disability Payments4. Social Security
Uncontrollable Spending (4)
1. Medicare2. Social Security 3. Help for Victims of Natural Disasters4. College Loans
Department of Defense
largest department of government, measured by number of employees
Tools Available to the President to Control Bureaucracy
1. putting loyal appointees in top jobs in key agencies2. calling cabinet meetings to learn about what is happening in various agencies3. utilizing the OMB4. directing White House aides to oversee agencies
Independent Agency
a government entity that is independent of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Implementation
process of putting the new policies into practice after a law has been passed by Congress
Regulation
issue rules by which federal and state programs operate
Bureaus, Divisions, Offices
departments, corporations, independent agencies and their sub-units
Formal Rules
a set of printed directions for every level (standard operating procedures)
Interstate Commerce Commission
posses the power over the nation's railroads
Federal Government
a bureaucracy dealing with public administration
Bureaucracy
a complex, formal system of organization that provides for specialization of functions and hierarchical relationships
All large organizations are ____________, run by _____________
bureaucracies; bureaucrats
Examples of Government Corporations (5)
1. U.S. Postal service 2. National Railroad Passenger Corporations 3. AmeriCorp4. Corporations for Public Broadcasting 5. Amtrak
Hierarchical Organization
- comprised of different levels- each lower unit is under the control and supervision of a higher one- each individual in the organization knows his place
Specialization
specialized tasks are carried out by trained personnel
About Bureaucrats (5)
- are the core of government- only a few work in DC- most of them are employed in regional, field and local offices all over the US- more than half work for defense agencies- most are white-collar workers (stenographers, clerks, lawyers, officeheads, inspectors)
Public Administration (7)
1. Planning2. Organization3. Finance4. Personnel5. Direction6. Public Relations7. Control
How many people are in the bureaucracy?
over 2.8 million
In the 1980s and 90s a common complaint was what?
the size of the bureaucracy
Private Enterprise
to make programs less expensive and more efficient
It would be a difficult task to ____________ the bureaucracy to ________ government cost.
reorganize; reduce
Did deregulation work? and what did it lead to in the 1980s?
It did not work and it lead to savings and loan scandals
Deregulation
to reduce the role of the federal government
The Power of the Budget
1. the president has the authority to control the expenditures of the executive branch2. OMB reduces or eliminates funds for programs the president does not support3. Congress is empowered to override these decisions4. OMB has evolved in it's roles, procedures, and routines
OMB
The Oficce of Management and Budget. They formulate and execute the federal budget
Three Main Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy
1. implementation2. administration 3. regulation
Power of the Purse
the power for Congress to override budget decisions?
The 15 Executive Branch Departments
- Department of State- Department of the Treasury- Department of Defense- Department of Justice- Department of the Interior- Department of Agriculture- Department of Commerce- Department of Labor- Department of Health and Human Services- Department of Housing and Urban Development- Department of Transportation- Department of Energy- Department of Education- Department of Veterans' Affairs- Department of Homeland Security
Examples of Corporations (6)
1. Tennessee Valley Authority2. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation3. US Postal Service4. Corporation for Public Broadcasting5. Amtrak6. Americorps
Corporation
a business that provides mechanisms to handle matters that are similar to those of private businesses
Communications/Interstate Transportation (5)
1. Securities and Exchange Commission2. National Labor Relations Board3. FCC4. Federal Election Commission5. Federal Reserve Board
Regulatory Commissions
established by Congress to regulate activities like radio and television communications, interstate transportation by railroads, trucks, etc.
Cabinet Departrments
largest administrative units in the bureaucracy; employ about 85% of the civilian employees of the federal government
Federal Communications Commission
polices the nation's radio and television networks
Executive Branch
implements, administers, and regulates all executive programs
__________ is responsible for the activities of all executive agencies
president
Small units called bureaus, offices, or services dealing with either a particular clientele or specific subject (5)
1. Bureau of Land Management ( Department of Interior)2. Federal Bureau of Investigation ( Department of Justice)3. Internal Revenue Service ( Department of Treasury)4. Immigration and naturalization service ( Department of Homeland Security)5. Federal Aviation Administration ( Department of Transportation)
Federal Administration
has one task - to execute the orders of the president
Administration
collection of fees, the issue of permits, conduction of tests
Oversight
legislative or executive review of a particular government program or organization
Department
Large organizations in government with the largest mission; highest ranking organization in the federal hierarchy
Examples of Independent Regulatory Commissions (5)
1. Federal Election Commission2. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)3. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)4. Consumer Product Safety Commission5. Federal Reserve Board
Examples of Independent Agencies (4)
1. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)2. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)4. National Security Agency (NSA)
What Bureaucracies Derive Their Strength From
1. Accountability 2. Centralization3. Specialization4. Standardization
Department of Health and Human Services
largest department of government, measured by budget
Civil Service
federal employees who work for the government through a competitive, not political, selection
Merit System
created through Pendleton Act of 1883; succeeded the spoils system
Economic Security Agencies (3)
- Social Security Administration- Securities and Exchange Commission- Federal Trade Commission
Great Society
- an expansion of the welfare state created in the 1960s by LBJ- Medicare, Head Start, Job Corps
Environmental Protection Agency
agency created by Richard Nixon
OSHA
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
1883 Pendelton Act
set up the merit system under the Civil Service Commission
75% of federal employees hold jobs under the ______ system, rather than under __________
merit; patronage
1937 Hatch Act
federal workers are prohibited from running for office and from campaigning for other candidates
In 1935, FDR passed the ______ _______ ____
Social Security Act
Independent Regulatory Commission
Government agency or commission with regulatory power whose independence is protected by Congress- commissioners appointed by president, approved by Senate
Bureaucrat
career government employee
_________ and the ________ have separate bureaucracies functioning for them.
Congress; courts
Every member of Congress had a ______ working for them.
staff
National Security Bureaucracy (6)
1. FBI2. CIA3. NSA (National Security Agency)4. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms5. DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency6. Immigration and Naturalization Service
Which bureaus were increased in size in response to the increasing public concerns over violent crime, drugs, and illegal immigration?
the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms; DEA; and Immigration and Naturalization Service
Federal Register
official record of what the federal bureaucracy does
Independent Agencies
Government entity that is independent of legislative, executive, and judicial branches