substrate level phosphorylation
used fermentation and other pathwaysATP is synthesized during steps in the catabolism of an organic compound
oxidative phosphorylation
used in respirationATP is produced by proton motive force
exergonic reactions
release energy, G is negative, spontaneour reaction
Butanediol
test detects intermediate acetoin
aerobic respiration acceptor
O2
photophosphorylation
used by phototropic organismlight drives the redox reactions that generate the proton motive force
fermentation electron acceptor
endogenous organic
NADP+/NADPH
freely diffusible, involved in anabolism
NAD+/NADH
freely diffusible co enzyme, invived in catabolism
chemoorganotrophs
obtain energy from organic chemicals
outgrowth
emergence of vegitative cell
phototrophs
use light for energy source
chemolithotrophs
obtain energy from inorganic substances
lithotroph
uses reduced inorganic substances tas electron source
chemotrophs
obtain energy from oxidation of chemical compouds
hetertrophs
use organic molecules as carbon sources
organotrophs
obtain electrons from organic compounds for electron source
metabolism
total of all chemical reactions occuring in the cell
autotrophs
use carbon dixoide as their sole carbon sourceprimary producers
oxidation
removal of electrons from substance
phosphoenolypyruvate
highest energy producer, not used often
coenzyme electron carrier
freely diffusible, can transfer electrons from one place to another in the cell
net energy change
difference in reduction potentials between the primary donor and the final acceptor
electrons up the tower
energy used (photosynthesis)
electrons down the tower
releases energy
lactic acid- homolactic
main product is lactic acidcheeses, sour cream, yogurt
ethanol
breads, wine, beer
fermentation
takes place in the absence of an exogenous electron acceptoruses pyruvate or derivative as endogenous electron acceptorcontinues recycling of electron carriersforms ATP via substrate level phosphorylationproduces fermentation products
anaerobic respiration
uses electron carriers other than O2generally yields less energy because E0 of electron acceptor is less positive than O2
Aerobic Respiration
process that can completely catabloize an organic energy source to CO2 using1. glycolytic pathway2. TCA3. ETC with O2 as final e- acceptorproduces ATP and recycles electron carriers
endoenzymes
constitutive- always on
exoenzymes
inducible, only make enzymes when they detect food
fermentation
uses an endogenous electron acceptor such as pyruvate or derivativeNO ETC or PMFATP synthesized only by substrate level phosphorlation
mixed acid
mixtures of acids caused from fermentation
lactic acid- heterolactic
other things produced along with lactic acidpickles, buttermilk, food spoilage
NADH and NADPH
good electron donors
prosthetic groups
firmly attached to ensymes in the plasma membrane- associated with electron transport reactions
anaerobic respiration acceptor
NO3- SO4 CO2 Fumarate
endergonic reactions
require energy, G is positive, non spontaneous
respiration
involves use of ETCas electrons pass through the ETC to the final electron acceptor, PMF is generate to synthesize ATP
ATP
7.3 kcal/mol realeased when hydrolyzed to ADP+Pi
cortex
peptidoglycan, protective of core
germ cell wall
cell wall of bacteria
core
metabolically inactive, low pHlow water contentcalcium dipicolinateSASPs
SASPs
small acid soluble DNA binding proteins
sporulation
releasing a spore
coat
more than 50 layers of protein
outermembrane
lipid bi layer
transport work
take up of nutrients, repair, emelimination of wastes, maintenance of ion balances
mechanical work
motility of cells, chemotaxis
germination
spore takes in water and becomes metabolically activeenvironmental nutrients are detectedloss of resistance
activation
prepares spore for germination, results in treatment like heat
catabolism
fuels reactionsenergy conservingprovide a ready source of reducing powergenerate precursors for biosynthesis
anabolism
synthesis of complex organic molecules from simpler onesrequires energy and building blocks ffrom fueling reactions
3 types of work
chemical, transport, mechanical
chemical work
synthesis of new cellular material
equilibrium constant
measure of the tendancy of a reducing agent to lose electrons- the more negative the number, the better the electron donor
reduction
addition of an electron to a substance
delta G'
standard conditions-free energy change at pH 7 temperature 25 C, 1 atm reactants