CNA Ch 19 & 24

By A. Gavina

Characteristics of Oxygen (O2)
1. Is a gas.2. Has no taste, odor, or color.
Why is oxygen important for humans?
1. Death occurs within minutes if breathing stops.2. Brain damage and serious illness can occur without oxygen.3. Iliness, surgery, and injuries affect the amount of oxygen in the blood and cells.
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
edema (retention)
2500mL intake, 750mL output
orthopneic position
sitting up and leaning over a table to breathe
dehydrated
250mL intake, 1000mL output
normal (2/3 difference)
1500mL intake, 1000mL output
List the 9 abnormal breathing patterns.
Tachypnea, Bradypnea, Apnea, Hypoventilation, Hyperventilation, Dyspnea, Cheyne-Stokes respirations, Orthopnea, Kussmaul respirations.
Characteristics of normal respirations are?
1. Quiet, effortless, and regular.2. Equal rise and fall of chest on both sides.
normal respiration per minute
12 to 20
Actions to take when you observe signs and symptoms for hypoxia?
Report to nurse at once.
What can cause hypoxia?
Anything that affects respiratory function.
Signs and Symptoms of Hypoxia?
1. Restlessness (is an early sign).2. Dizziness and disorientation.
Consequences of Hypoxia
1. Cells do not function properly.2. Life threatening.
hypoxia
Cells do not have enough oxygen
tachypnea
rapid breathing, more than 20 per/min; FEVER, EXERCISE, PAIN
kussmaul respirations
Very deep & rapid respirations; DIABETIC COMA
orthopnea
Breathing is easier in an upright position; ASTHMA, EMPHYSEMA, HEART DISEASE
cheyne-stokes respirations
respirations gradually increase in rate & depth & then become shallow & slow; breathing may stop for 10 to 20 seconds; NEAR DEATH, HEART & RENAL FAILURE
dyspnea
difficult, labored, painful breathing; HEART DISEASE, ANXIETY
hyperventilation
Respirations are rapid & deeper than normal, ASTHMA, EMPHYSEMA, ANXIETY
hypoventilation
Irregular, slow, shallow breathing pattern; LUNG DISORDERS
bradypnea
slow breathing, fewer than 12 per/min, DRUG OVERDOSE, CNS DISORDER
apnea
absence of breathing; SUDDEN CARDIAC, RESPIRATORY ARREST