3. Maintenance (junior)
salesppl who are primarily concerned with retaining their present position, status and performance level within the sales force (late 30s or early 40s)
Valences for Performance
a salesperson's perception of the desirability of attaining improved performance on some dimension
Role Accuracy
the degree to which the salesperson's perceptions of his or her role partners' demands- particularly company superiors-are accurate
Unstable internal factors
these factors may vary from time to time (effort expended or mood at the time)
Motivation
the amount of effort the salesperson desires to expend on each activity or task associated with the job
sales training costs
costs associated with development, delivery, and evaluation of sales training efforts inside the company
examples of selection tools
application, interviews, reference checks, physical exams, psychological tests
unstable external factors
these factors are external to the salesperson and vary over time (a boost in sales from an aggressive advertising campaign)
expense account
a formal reimbursement plan for travel, lodging, meals, entertainment, and other expenses incurred by sales reps in the field
selection tools
the tools used by management to evaluate and choose candidates for a particular position
1. Exploration (freshman)
salespeople in the earliest stage of their career (often less than 30), unsure about whether selling is the most appropriate occupation for them to pursue and whether they can be successful
Skills Variables
learned proficiencies and attitudes necessary for effective performance of specific job tasks; skills can change over time with training and experience (vocational or interpersonal)
Performance attributions
stable, unstable, internal, external
Motivation further defined
1. initiate action on a certain task2. expend a certain amount of effort on that task3. persist in expending effort over a period of time
Extrinsic rewards
rewards controlled and bestowed by people other than the salesperson, such as managers or customers
structured interview
each applicant is asked the same set of predetermined questions
benefits
designed to satisfy the salesperson's basic need for security and include mental and disability insurance, life insurance, and retirement plan
Perceived Role Conflict
the degree to which a salesperson's believes the role demands of two or more of his or her role partners is incompatible
Career Stages
1. Exploration2. Establishment3. maintenance4. disengagement
On the Job Training (OJT)
planned process in which a new recruit learns by doing and includes coaching and feedback from management and or experienced sales people
draw
an advance of money to a salesperson in months when commissions are low to ensure he or she will take home a specified minimum pay
Expectancies
a salesperson's estimate of the probability that spending effort on a specific task will lead to improved performance on the same dimension
Electronic training methods
variety of techniques and methodologies using electronic delivery systems; most include the internet to deliver information and provide feedback to salesppl
Valences for Rewards
a salesperson's perceptions of the desirability of receiving increased rewards as a result of improved performance
physical characteristics
characteristics associated with the physical traits of an individual (height, appearance)
quota
minimum requirement a salesperson must do to earn bonuses
psychological traits
two types:1. aptitude2. personality
Stable internal factors
these factors are unlikely to change much in the near future (personal skills and abilities)
perquisites (perks)
might include higher compensation, a better automobile, better office facilities, and the like to provide incentives for top salespeople to move into more advanced sales positions
Instrumentalities
a salesperson's estimates of the probability that improved performance on a given dimension will lead to increased attainment of particular rewards
sales training analysis
review and analysis of the training needs of the sales force designed to answer three basic questions:1. where is organization training needed?2. what should be the content of the program?3. who needs the training?
selection criteria
characteristics management looks for in selecting individuals for sales positions
Role-playing
individuals (trainees or experienced sales ppl) perform in front of others and then critiqued by management or other more experienced sales people
variable commission rate
pays relatively high commission for sales of the most profitable products, sales to the most profitable accounts, or sales of new products
Job description includes
1. nature of product or services being sold2. types of customers to be called on 3. specific tasks and responsibilities to be carried out by the salesperson
intrinsic rewards examples
feelings of accomplishment, personal growth, and self worth (higher level needs)
2. Establishment (sophomore)
salespeople who have settled on an occupation and desire to build it into a successful career (often late 20s or early 30s)
sales contests
events designed to encourage extra effort aimed at specific short-term objectives
commission
payment based on short term results, usually a salesperson's dollar or unit sales volume
internal sources
recruits consist of individuals already employed within the firm; other sales related positions, staff from other departments,engineers inside company
Job satisfaction
the characteristics of the job that the salesperson finds rewarding, fulfilling, satisfying, or frustrating and unsatisfying
4. Disengagement (Senior)
salesppl who are beginning to prepare for retirement and the possible loss of self-identity that can accompany separation from one's job (50s and 60s)
job description
detailed description of the job outline
non-financial incentives
opportunities for promotion or various types of recognition for performance like special awards and citations
external sources
recruits consisting of people in other firms (who often identified and referred by current members of the sales force), educational institutions,ads, employment agencies, the internet
bonus
payment made at the discretion of management for achieving or surpassing some set level of performance; usually additional incentive payments to motivate salesppl to reach high levels of performance
aptitude
refers to enduring personal characteristics that determine an individual's overall ability to perform a sales job (intelligence, cognitive ability)
unstructured interview
each applicant is asked only a few questions to get him or her talking freely on variety of subjects like work experience, career objectives, and other activities
Examples of Extrinsic Rewards
pay, financial incentives, security, recognition, and promotion (lower level human needs)
compensation plan
method used to implement the reward structure in an organization
Stable external factors
factors are external to the salesperson and remain relatively stable over time (nature or the task , competitive situation in the territory)
different dimensions of job satisfaction
1. job itself2. co-workers3. supervision4. company policies and support5. pay6. promotion, advancement opportunities7. customers
personality
refers to enduring personal traits that reflect an individual's consistent reactions to situations encountered in the environment (self-esteem, creativity)
Intrinsic rewards
rewards controlled by the salesperson within themselves
Plateauing
often desired as early disengagement it occurs when salesppl have reached the limit of the potential (promotion or performance) and begin to exhibit negative job behaviors and attitudes
salary
fixed sum of money paid at regular intervals, the amount of salary paid is most often a function of individual's experience, competence, tenure on the job as well as the superior's judgments about the quality of the salesperson's performance
Perceived Role Ambiguity
degree to which a salesperson believes they do not have the information necessary to perform the job adequately
incentive pay
additional compensation to encourage good performance, these may take the form of commissions tied to sales volume or profitability, or bonuses for meeting specific performance targets